Monday, May 25, 2020
Bronze, Silver, and Gold. Every two years the Olympic games come around. For three weeks we watch as the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s finest compete against other nations for the chance to have a medal draped around their necks. There are two types of Olympics: the summer and winter games, but only one could be the better of the two. As a viewer of the events, the answer to that question is easy; the better of the two is the winter games because of the time of year, the athletic events, and the moments to remember. In order to evaluate the Summer and Winter Olympics, I considered several criteria. The first criterion I used was time of year. The weather and temperature play a big part in every aspect of all Olympic games. Another criterion I considered was the athletic events. The Olympic games are not worth watching if there is no thrill in watching it. The last criterion I used in my evaluation was memorable moments. Why would anyone want to watch the Olympic games if there is nothing that coul d change history. The Winter Olympics obviously occur in the winter, which is the better season for competition. I love the winter; the beauty of the snow on the ground, and the ice crystals that form on everything outside. Along with winterÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty, it is extremely cold, which makes it the perfect time of the year to stay inside. Also, since it is cold outside watching the Olympics is the perfect excuse to not scoop snow and instead, curl up with a blanket, and turn on the TV to watch the daysShow MoreRelated1980 Usa Hockey691 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe team was compromised of all amateur players. Since then rules have changed and now the use of professional athletes is allowed in Olympic competition. It is my belief that the use of professional athletes in Olympic competition ruins the pride and glory of the games. 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All was silent in theRead MoreInterview Essay1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesObstacle vs. Opportunity During the course of her interview on The Wendy Williams Show, with Wendy Williams, Lolo Jones explains how she uses her past failures as motivation to achieve her dreams. Through everything she has been through, Lolo never quit. She never took the easy way out and always kept her eye on her dream. Her story is Ã¢â¬Å"not complete.Ã¢â¬ (qtd. in Rashaad Jorden) and in this interview it is clear that she is continuing to focus on the opportunities in front of her. Lolo JonesRead MoreThe Olympic Games: Faster, Higher, Stronger1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesset in stone. Every year a new star comes out of the shadows and becomes the focus of global interest. Nations back their athletes financially to ensure they receive a medal. Winning gold in the Olympics Games is seen as the highest honor an athlete can achieve because of its prestigious image. The Olympics have not always been about the athletes. Nations competing have been victims of political scandals. When one country goes aga inst another country, some people do not only view it as a fight forRead MoreIs Sports Just A Proxy For Politics?1886 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe past century, political agendas have crept their way into becoming the central focus of sports. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s to the point where a sport is no longer focused on athleticism, but political views. At least five political issues that have been politicized: Olympics, race, religion, homosexuality, and gender. The political proxies in sports have gradually increased in recent years due to increasing political exposure and agendas. Female athletes were most likely the first to confront political discriminationRead MoreDeveloping Countries Mega Events5254 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesJohn, Pelle, Kimberly Encyclopedia of the modern Olympic movement, Greenwood Publishing group, 2006 25 Gleeson, Mark. SA faces $1bn World Cup stadium bill. Mail Guardian [JOHANNESBURG] 1 Oct. 2006. Print. 25 Hall, AlanÃ 10,000 hookers, mob wars, drugs and Pounds 10billion... the Mafia can twait for German World Cup 2006Ã¢â¬ Ã :[Final 1 Edition].Ã Ã The SunÃ 2Ã JulÃ 2002, ProQuest Newsstand,Ã ProQuest. Web.Ã 17 Aug. 2009. 25 Hohler, Bob OLYMPIC WORLD TURNS WITH EVER-LESS AMERICAN INFLUENCEÃ :[THIRDRead MoreThe Eurozone Debt Crisis2891 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagescompatible with the Eurozone policy since it joined in 2001. This paper contains a thorough study of GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s current account deficit including; a brief current history of Greece, a long run analysis the year 1985 to present, forecasting using the Holt Winters model, comparison with the forecast and other Eurozone countries. There are three major conclusions made from this study; Greece was spending beyond its means before joining the Eurozone, GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s current account balance was comparable to PortugalÃ¢â¬â¢sRead More Tourism in Greece, Italy, and Turkey Essay2161 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin April 2001.? It has also benefited from political stability, strong economic growth, and its ascension to eurozone membership in 2001.? The government has authorized research studies on winter tourism, conference tourism, and ecotourism, and has created regional tourist authorities (WTO 303).? The 2004 Olympic Games in Athens have placed both Athens and Greece in more of a global spotlight and will likely spark a greater interest in the cou ntry. ?Greece has something for almost every touristRead MorePitbull Vs Malum Who Are Maluma And Pitbull, And How Did They Get Into The Music Industry1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPitbull vs MalumaÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Who are Maluma and Pitbull, and how did they get into the music industry, how successful are they now? Maluma and Pitbull are two well known artists that share the same genre of music, but also have their differences in other genres of music they play,but have other difference in how they got into the industry. 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Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 26 Words: 7866 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview A Successive business environment always want to have some innovative business process models designed in a way that can enhance their business and operational performance with maintaining uniqueness from their business competitors. Business process improvements demands for an adaptive information and software architecture with a business process platform (BPP) that brings the required innovation and uniqueness with a guaranteed performance improvement in daily business operations. The demand for a more flexible and agile platform for a business oriented sector is dealt through services oriented architecture (SOA), where the IT solutions and techniques are congregated to meet the constantly shifting needs of industry. SOA starts with services, which are group of components mainly involve in a business process execution. The use of these loosely coupled web- services at an enterprise level, with well defined and platform independent re-useable interfaces has emerged with enterprise services and a higher level of SOA based platform. that has proved to be an industry standard, specifically focusing on business processes. The emergence of web services developments and standards in support of automated business execution has driven a major technological advancement, most notably the service oriented architecture. (SOA approach tech and research issue (2007). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Services oriented architecture" essay for you Create order SAP as a market giant in providing the business solutions is combining the technology with its deep business processes and industry knowledge and has evolved using enterprise SOA terminology, a step ahead from standard SOA technology. SAP offer the enterprise SOA in terms of using the SOA technology to deliver business solutions with well defined set of enterprise services models and SOA enabled SAP NetWeaver platform. SAP delivers business process platform by offering the SAP NetWeaver platform as a technological basis and its latest release of mySAP ERP applications (SAP ERP6.0) as a functional core of it. (Campbell and Mohun, 2007, pp 97-98) Enterprise SOA as being business driven software architecture needs to be presented with more exploration of its business driven features, covers business aspects of SOA such as its adopted methodologies, strategic and governance aspects etc. Some additional views and research study on SOA in context of its impact on BPP also emphasize to take SOA as a business driven approach only, which considers both sides of it, the technical infrastructure and the business driven approach. ( some research referenceforget find it out plsssss ) SOA as presented in the trade literature, is not in the form of business architecture, nor is it presented from a business perspective. By and large the literature addresses the technical aspects of services-orchestration not the business aspects. This lack of a business view is what distinguishes a SOA from an enterprise SOA (Gulledge T, 2007). The above statement clearly mark the enterprise SOA with an eminent status of business oriented platform and insist the research community to divert more towards its business aspect rather than having the technical perspective of it. Considering the above two statements by (Gartner and Gulledge), the research area of this thesis is to explore the business aspect of an enterprise services oriented architecture (enterprise SOA) in context of enterprise business solutions and applications presented in the form of a business process platform (BPP), SPECIFICALLY the approach and business logic presented by software vendor SAP in this field. In order to make this research more logically accepted towards the business processes transformation on a enterprise SOA oriented business process platform, a technological view on the features and capabilities of enterprise SOA will also be discussed with its current and future role in evolution of SAP NetWeaver as an application, integration, composition and finally as a business process platform. Business process management, Composite applications, building blocks, web services, Model driven approach. Designing SOA architecture is extremely considered with the awareness of business processes and same will form the core of operational and functional platform for the business processes in the future. This research thesis is to empirically analyze the impact of the eSOA on the future of SAP Business processes platform along with the identification of the central requirements that are not yet satisfied by this architecture in an enterprise environment. In addition this thesis introduces/demonstrates the emerging SOA methodologies and methods being used in developing the composite application, as well as the limitations in the business process platform for SAP products and solutions. ********implements dynamic services, composing and binding of services and the functionality of a business process platform with possible applications (supported) are also described.********* First we provide an introduction to Web Services and the place they can play inenterprise systems. The aim is to provide an overall understanding of the technologyrather than a tutorial on its detailed application. A high-level model of our enterprisesystem context is also presented to aid the discussion. Second, we examine the extentto which web services can be used within an enterprise system, and conclude that theycan. This means that a single worldwide standard for services can be used not onlybetween enterprises, but also within them, even within a single address space! All partsof an enterprise system can be provided with the same standard technology, frontinglegacy systems, message buses, new systems, business processes, and workflow Page 14. . An SOA is a component model comprises mainly on web services that interrelates functional units of an application called services. Through well defined interfaces and contracts betwen by using an approach of web services, Enterprise SOA and the wide-ranging opportunities offered by thebusiness process platform fundamentally change the developmentof business processes. They make it possible to model and combinebusiness workfl ows in virtually any way, using enterprise services..This paper outlines the various aspects of SOA adoption from a technical and business viewpoint, discusses theresearch efforts in these areas, highlights the dearth of critical research into the business and organizational factorsinfluencing the adoption of SOA, and discusses potential approaches to study these factors and their impact. Indoing so, this paper sets an agenda for researchers interested in the practical ramifications of the populararchitectural approach to systems development and business proces s transformation. The following section provides a brief background on the concept of service-oriented computing. Section 3 covers adiscussion of the potential challenges beyond technology in the road to an enterprise SOA rollout, summarizing thestate of affairs in current published literature and highlighting the need for empirical investigation of SOA in practice.Section 4 outlines a research agenda for studying the real-world impacts of SOA adoption discussing possible areasof investigation and potential approaches for research. The final section, Section 5, summarizes the analysis andprovides some concluding remarks on future research.SOA is a logical way of designinga software system to provide services to either end-user applications or to otherservices distributed in a network, via published and discoverable interfaces. A wellconstructed,standards-based Service Oriented Architecture can empower a business environmentwith a flexible infrastructure and processing environment. SOA achieves this by provisioning independent, reusable automated business process and systems functions asservices and providing a robust and secure foundation for leveraging these services. Efficienciesin the design, implementation, and operation of SOA-based systems can allow organizationsto adapt far more readily to a changing environment 1.2 Aim and Objective The Aim of the research is to analyze the various aspects of enterprise-SOA adoption in evolving a business process platform from a technical and business viewpoint, highlight the influencing technologies and their future impact on adoption of enterprise SOA enabled platform (SAP NetWeaver) as a reusable building and composing paradigm for business processes. To pursue with the Aim, following are the objectives devised, To provide an overview of Service oriented architecture in context of SAP enterprise-SOA based Business process platform and its impact on future developments within SAPs provided business solutions. To provide a technical exposition, highlighting the usage and interaction of enterprise services on SAP enterprise SOA enabled BPP and its composition environment. To provide a clear explanation of the importance of STANDARDS to enterprise SOA to explore its expected flexibility and uniformity in operating the business applications on an enterprise SOA oriented BPP. To explore the BPP at all levels of its lifecycle in order to have an exact relationship and features it perseveres from enterprise SOA and enterprise services as its core ingredient of services enriched structure. To highlight the real change, an enterprise SOA would be bringing in to specific industries as an individual business application platform and also as commonly available platform for different business natures e.g. ERP, CRM, and SCM etc. 1.3 Approach 1.4 Dissertation Outline Thesis has been divided in four main chapters, covering most of the aspects of the topic. In this introduction chapter 1, the introduction on the topic is given, with highlighting the subject importance and the reason on categorizing the subject area in technical and business perspective. Aims and Objectives of thesis are also described here with a brief overview of the intended findings of this thesis. Chapter 2 presents a literature review, dedicated to provide explanation on the key concepts of enterprise SOA and Business process platform, along with the other relevant and interrelated issues, terminologies and methodologies, affecting the research area directly or indirectly. The purpose of the next chapter 3 is to present the research method applied to reach on an answer to the research question. The subsequent chapter 4 is all about the results and summary of the Qualitative/Qualitative/Empirical data finding of online survey with an analysis of the data collection and personal findings. Chapter 5 summarizes the analysis outcome and present a conclusion, in addition with areas of interest for future research. CHAPTER 2: LITRATURE REVIEW 2.1 Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture (enterprise SOA) Enterprise Service-oriented Architecture (Enterprise SOA) is a business driven software Architecture based on the capabilities and qualities of enterprise services. Enterprise SOA mainly transforms the IT Architecture such as a business process platform (BPP) for an organization with more compliance to the real-time technical and business requirements by elevating the web services to enterprise level. Walker L (2007). Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has become the governing architecture for the future versions of SAP business process platform and SAP business applications. Service-oriented architecture is a blueprint for an adaptable, flexible, and open IT architecture for developing services-based, enterprise-scale business solutions. With the SAP NetWeaver technology SAP Research (2009) A forecast on a view on Business 2010 by the Economist back in 2005 concluded 82 percent of the decision makers survey as a companys potential for success depends on its ability to flexibly harness IT for process innovation and integration. The best-placed companies are those that turn requirements and ideas from departments and management into IT-based business processes as fast as possible Business 2010. With the same view of Business 2010 and beyond, SAP has developed the enterprise SOA where the main core of the architecture, the enterprise services can be reused in business processes. New functionalities can easily be activated in the response of a workflow change which helps redesigning the business processes rapidly and efficiently on the base of new business ideas and models. Enterprise-SOA is a flexibly adopted and strategically recognized architecture now by a huge number of existing IT platforms and business processes across the enterprise sector. The architecture demands more research and developments at a further phase for enterprise-SOA adoption heading towards more substantial processes improvement across Business platforms, developed by many major vendors by spending huge resource in order to refine the business processes running on the business platforms. Before exploring the more details on SOAs current and future technological incorporated business platform, the base and core technology paving such a platform will be discussed first, generally known as WEB SERVICES. Enterprise SOAs relationship and its link with its base web services and role in Business process management and BPP is discussed further in next sections in an appropriate manner. 2.1.1 Enterprise SOA A Derivation from Web Services Enterprise Services, working as a core of enterprise-SOA are technically based on web services technology. Working through interfaces channels, these services are transformed with additional features of many business related contents and processes and introduced as enterprise services within an enterprise environment such as SAPs enterprise-SOA. Woods et al (2004) Web services in general are potentially new generation software based technologies, introduced to deal with business enhancements and complexities within the dynamically integrated business environments with in and across the organizations. Web services are comprises of applications that provide different internet based interfaces normally required at an enterprise level and also participate in delivering a service-oriented architecture (SOA. Although web services may not be the only requirement to implement an enterprise-SOA, but they are becoming the most preferred in an enterprise environment because of their technical interoperability features relying on open standardized web technologies as mentioned by Purao and Umapathy (2007). SOA work as a platform and represent a framework that manages web services transformation in to enterprise and application services to make them a useful and effective mechanism for a business activity or process running on a SOA enabled platform, similarly an enterprise-SOA is a SAP terminology, developed to present an SOA environment to fully enriched their business process platform with the technical and business processes features inherited by enterprise web services technology. This inherited web technology architecture interacts and integrate the business functionalities to provide a more flexible and valuable business and technology integrated platform, called as a business process platform. 2.1.2 Web Services Technologies and standards Grham et al (2002) technically describes the web services as an interface which provides a collection of integrated operations, accessible thorough standardized Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) protocol messaging. A Web Service functions using a standard XML notation, called its service description, that provides all of the details necessary during interaction with the service, including message formats, transport protocol, and location. These web services descriptions, performing a specific or a set of tasks are expressed in Web Services description languages WSDL. Web services business-oriented platform has a wide acceptance in todays internet based business environment. Built on standard internet based technologies and standards briefly mentioned below, makes it more favorite towards web services based business processes. Maamar et al (2006). These web services technologies are driven by three research communities a) The standard group of the W3C, the Organization for the Advance ment of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) and the Global Grid Forum (GGF) b) Middleware vendor adoption and c) The open-source community. Cesare et al (2007). Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) is a text based core central component of web Services architecture, used for expressing data. Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) is a standard approach function as a business application towards registering web services definitions in to a repository. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is an XML based transport mechanism protocol that defines the structure of the message used for the communication in between web services. It also defines the message processing method, encoding of exchanged data in between services and how to represent remote procedures and responses. Web Services description languages (WSDL) defines the input and output parameters in the form of user interfaces for web service. Paar (2003). ebXML is used to exchange the business profile information between the web service provider and the web services requester. Enterprise SOA and Business Process Platform (A Meeting of Disciplines) 2.2 Business Process Platform 2.2.1 What is a Business Process Platform? Adopting Enterprise SOA for a company require an appropriate platform to accommodate the new architecture and its services enabled solutions. A Business Process Platform performs as a prerequisite for the deployment and integration of enterprise services, centrally located with the enterprise services Repository (ESR) containing enterprise services definitions, unified with business and information technology and business intelligence features provide more operational excellence for the business processes dependant and running on this technology platform. The reason behind to build a business process platform was to provide an appropriate technology platform equipped with applications to deliver the business processes in a flexible way from the customer point of view and to adjust and customize the business processes in to something appropriate with its clients business needs. A Business Process Platform (BPP) formally known as NetWeaver in SAPs domain brings more business consistenc y and innovation through the Enterprise SOA. ****BPP Changes Infrastructure and the Business Application Vendor Landscape (LOOK FOR this research/journal mentioned in gartner.pdf 2.2.2 SAP approach to deliver the Business Process Platform. SAPs approach on delivering the Business Process platform is entirely influenced by SAP ERP software, which was mainly built by using an approach of a combination of SAP own technology, the ABAP programming language, enabled integrated business processes within companies and implemented standard software with an easy to install attribute to customer sites. SAP has built its Business process platform on top of the Service oriented Architecture (SOA) design. Using the already existing SOA terminology SAP has extended the technology to enterprise SOA, adding all the business processes development and management knowledge they had previously as being serving the business community for last many years. SAPs business process platform has been enhanced with many built in features that makes it a pre-defined, pre-delivered and pre-developed with web services, business processes features, components and contents that allow a user to compose and deliver new application by using its built in set of services. The current business process platform has SAP NetWeaver as a technological ground and SAP ERP 2005 with all the business functionalities and other SAP business applications act as a functional core of the platform. Web services enablement with all the definitions of enterprise web services and the wide ranging opportunities delivered with business process platform fundamentally change the development of business processes. SAP has described a clear roadmap for enterprise-SOA based business process platform and most of the developments are in place and utilized by the business industry. In the next sections, a summary of the major elements of the enterprise-SOA with a detailed review of the usefulness of current SAP adopted technologies and features to develop its BPP is discussed, which at a later stage can help to predict how SAPs future version of BPP will continue to evolve based upon the current SOA strategy and other industry developments. Model Driven Approach Moving away from coding towards a modelling approach SAP utilized business processes expert community to model its existing Business processes running in its business applications. These models are developed in a semantic way, completely different the way as used by the business applications (ERP, CRM etc) replacing the coding with business process perspective. They make it possible to model and combine the business workflows using the enterprise services. ***************SEE BOOK Requirement Modeling and specification for SOA) 3. Business Process Management Business Process Management initially developed from a business perspective to improve the business processes and got associated with a number of business improvement methodologies such as total quality management (TQM), Six Sigma, and business process re-engineering (BPR). The emergence of enterprise-SOA and web services technology in the context of business process platform revolutionizes the transformation of business processes running on the platform. A successful business functionality of the SOA require a clear focus on the business processes, pre-designed and pre-deployed on a business process platform for composing and delivering new business applications. Enterprise SOA repeatedly joins the services with business processes to awake the features of complete business process management architecture within the business process platform. BPM in other words, refers to the business process platform ability that automates the management of business processes. Business process Management (BPM) is a concept of management discipline has been referred to as the third wave of process management by Howared Smith and Peter Finar Fingar (Smith and Fingar, 2003). The first wave of processes management where the processes were standardized but not automated and the second wave where the processes were automated using Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are now better improved with third wave of BPM where the business processes are the central focus and building block of automation and business. The entire value chain of the ability to change processes is continuously improved and optimized using the agile BPM and emerged with a category of software system called Business Process Management System (BPMS). The functionality of the BPMS has been a seamless part of the SAP NetWeaver Business platform now. ***********SAP NetWeaver Business Process Management builds on industry-standard technology, including Web services, XML-based messaging, Java, and Java Enterprise Edition****** from SAP research Ad 3.1 Enterprise SOA and BPM Enterprise SOA is said to be an enabler of BPM and at same time Business process Management provides sustainable value on top of the service-enabled platform like Business process transparency, flexibility and transformation (methodology) with SOA as technology enabler. SOA and BPM work hand in hand to deliver value. (SAP PRESS, BPM) GARTNER From an organizational standpoint, SOA as a concept usually resides in the IT units and depending on the process orientation in the companies reaches out to business process management Enterprise SOA enhance a business process platform with the business strategy of service composition and with ability to crate and modify the business processes where an enterprise make sure that the right processes and building blocks are being created to respond to the competitive pressure of a frequent business change. The SOA is intended to perform as a reusable building and composing paradigm in which we can build new processes by using the existing processes. SAPs current enterprise SOA provide applications fully derived by web services features and exposing the complete business functionality for every business process and act as a toolbox of pre-built contents, mapping and routing rules for both SAP and Non-SAP applications. (source: Enterprise SOA , designing business for IT innovation) 3.2 SAPs BPM Strategy SAP as being the world leading process automation technology supplier in the form of SAP Business Suite like ERP and CRM, with over half of the worlds business transaction involving 12 Million users in 120 countries. Currently SAP has put a lot of work in to defining the BPM capabilities within its SAP NetWeaver platform and SAP Business Suite. Majority of the SAP Business applications already automate the core process but BPM as a new arena in SAP is mainly diverted on business-IT alignment, linking strategy to execution and governance to business integration. SAP differentiates the business processes in to further sub-processes, which help to accommodate different business scenario in a seamless unified platform. Application Core Processes: These packaged processes jare designed as an integral part of a business process platform, represent the core business practices, delivered by SAP business applications such as SAP ERP, CRM etc. Their function is to provide added business value and the customization nature of these core processes has a sustainable process improvement impact on BPM. Composite Business Process: Enables the business process composition on the edge of application core processes, adopting characteristics from an executable business process model, which enables a quick responding nature in case of a critical business change request. These processes are delivered through the building block of BPM capability discussed in details below. Technical Integration Process such as system to system (S2S) and system to human (S2H) are implemented to define the management of complex integration scenarios created during A2A and B2B interactions. The nature of integration processes is to enable message flow automation. SAPs diversion to BPM approach is recognized by offering a set of mutually reinforcing BPM building blocks in respond to the frequent business changes. (SAP BPM White Paper) 3.2.1 SAP Business Process Platform and Building Blocks. A good platform must hold the underlying capabilities and feature of quickly construct the business processes from constant and precise building blocks. These building blocks need to be sufficiently interoperable and independent that can be quickly and easily combined and re combined in to different business services and business processes. SAP facilitates this innovation and enables business transformation by providing business services as the building blocks of business processes. Building block organisation in SAP building block architecture ensures the following, (Source: book Applied SOA) All SAP existing applications are web service enabled, having all the definitions stored in the ESR to provide comprehensive SOA governance and management around the platform. A Composition Environment that contains the building blocks for composition and adaptation of new services, events and applications. modeling of business processes with SAP NetWeaver developer studio, connecting the web services and generate the user interfaces. SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment (CE) 7.1 enables the composite environment feature for enterprise SOA. Process Integration comprises of Provisioning and SOA Middleware provides Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Enterprise Services Bus (ESB) that has a technical connectivity capability and B2B integration through SAP NetWeaver Process Integration (PI) 7.1 with external business partners with a possibility to do the intelligent routing and management of web Services as well. (Source ESOA intro 4m technology point of view 2008) BPM in the NetWeaver Platform Page 8 on SAP BPM white paper 19 Composite applications 3.3 Enterprise SOA and Environment SAP as a Composite Environment SAPs Application Composition Environment (SAP NetWeaver CE) is a key milestone, emerged as a dedicated platform to create more advanced SOA based composite applications. Composite Application within the enterprise SOA are built with the services in an SOA landscape comprising of both SAPs enterprise services and other web services. These applications allow the implementation of the business processes on top of the other available services either with their existing business logic or with completely new business logic for adapting the previously defined services to the new application oriented requirements. (Source: Gulledge T (2007) or Enterprise SOA development hand book (SAP2008) A best-ofbreed composition environment must offer, a effective and flexible reuse of existing applications and services, a Productive development environment and a business process orientation to align IT operations with business activities (SAP accelerate your roi in service oriented architecture (2009) A merger of the existing applications with new applications on SAP business process platform enabled by SOA reduces the integration challenges normally experienced in a general application environment, that enhance the business processes automation. These composite applications specially deliver the process definitions by using one or several application modules of the existing application, and the resulted processes definitions or new applications support a new business process which has not been supported by the existing application. SAP NetWeaver development and modeling tools speed up this process. IT operations with business activities [ Business flexibility and innovation are enhanced as companies establish a business process platform (BPP) specific to their needs to enable process creation, deployment and monitoring. A business service repository is an essential ingredient in a BPP. The emerging generation of business applications and enabling software architecture marks a shift in the boundary between application functionality and supporting infrastructure (Gartner 2009 from gartner.pdf ) 3.4 SOA Services Repository In a typical SOA environment, a repository is a significant mechanism to manage the services and reuse of services for certain business processes running with in that environment. woods and mattern (2006) mentioned that SOA repository is a central storage place where an organization store the services information that enable the reuse of services elements . SOA repository designs the services that reuse the data types and services interfaces. A modeling process even can look up in the repository for reuse or adaption of any services element. Hence, presence of all services components and objects at a common place avoid the re-invention mechanism and maximize the reuse of services components. 3.4.1 Enterprise Services Repository Enterprise Services Repository (ESR) is a well step beyond the SOA Services repository embedded on SAPs business process platform. ESR is a SAPs first enterprise services storage that exposes the business functionalities of a BPP in an SOA manner using web services capabilities. In addition to a typical SOA repository an ESR encompasses some newly designed semantic definition models, centrally stored in the (ESR). In SAP environment an ESR serve as a common repository for SAP customers and partners and contain all the necessary business processes, components of each business processes and the enterprise web services required by any SAP or non-SAP domain. These business components and web services can be reused as enterprise web services just by recalling the services definitions during the application building process with in the development environment where applications are built more rapidly with a lot of more business functionality. (ESR Reference SAAAAAAAAAAP one) SOA METHODOLOGIES (Methodology for Accelerated transformation to SOA) Enterprise Services orientation in business processes has also introduced a lot of challenges along with the opportunities. The increased trend in the deployment of Service-Oriented Architecture towards business processes transformations required a need for a matured methodology at every phase of the ESOA involvement either in a business or technological phase. SAP is currently emerging with the SAP methodology The Methodology for Accelerated Transformation to Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) built with the characteristics to meet the challenges and activities required by SAP business process platform in order to transform the IT system landscapes with the service oriented architectures. The Methodology for Accelerated Transformation carries the features to act as a SOA adoption roadmap in the context of SAP business applications and technology components. The aim of this section is to present a state of the art analysis of SAPs existing SOA Methodology by analysing its activities , usage and differentiation between its approaches at different built in phases like the Methodology development, adoption and implementations phases during the business transformation on SAP business process platform. The methodology for accelerated transformation to service-oriented architecture (SOA)describes the typical activities required to: transform to an SOA-based system landscape using the SAP Business Process Platform as a key building block. use the SAP Business Process Platform and build service-based solutions on top of it. The methodology focuses on the SOA-by-evolution concept and related SAP products, services, and concepts. The target audience is people who drive, plan or execute a companys evolution toward a service-oriented architecture. The methodology can also be considered as an SOA adoption roadmap in the context of SAP products (business applications and technology components, which form together a business process platform). It is important to note that SOA-based system landscape does not mean that each and every business process of a company runs as a service-based solution (for example, as composite application). Instead, it means that there is a platform in place which: incorporates SOA principles offers companies the option to address certain requirements through individual service-based solutions. HOW TO USE THE METHODOLOGY The methodology distinguishes between SOA adoption initiatives at enterprise level and business solution implementations at project level. The enterprise level initiatives are mainly related to long term IT strategy planning and infrastructure setup activities. The solution implementation part is structured along the plan, build, and run cycle. The Plan phase describes a general business process management methodology and is actually not only relevant in the context of a SOA transformation. Instead it can be used for planning solutions in general and independent from the later technical implementation option. The Build phase is SOA-focused and describes a methodology for implementing user centric composite applications on top of a business process platform. These methodology sections are not necessarily processed in a strict sequence. Companies can parallelize activities, set different emphases or even choose different entry points (different adoption patterns). For instance, some companies may have the required platform basis or infrastructure already in place and may start directly with the implementation of service-based solutions (for example, based on SAPs Enterprise Service Bundles). Other companies may not see a need to invest heavily in a long-term enterprise architecture planning, because this issue is already settled for them, and start directly with the modernization of their system landscape (for example, ERP upgrade). METHODOLOGY ASSUMPTION The methodology is based on the assumption that companies want and need to establish an SOA at an affordable cost. This is recognized by two aspects of the methodology: the service provisioning side, and the service consumption side. On the service provisioning side, SAP ships a business process platform which includes a huge amount of ready-to-run enterprise services. This means that companies do not necessarily need to build their own custom enterprise services. They can leverage the services of the business process platform (and the included SAP Business Suite) and immediately start building innovative solutions on top of it. On the service consumption side, the methodology supports a gradual (evolutionary) approach towards service-based solutions. This means that best-practice processes (for example, core processes which require a certain semantic consistency that is certified by a vendor and compliant with regulations) can stay within packaged business applications like the SAP Business Suite and run as platform processes. At the same time, companies can build innovative processes and solutions as service-based solutions (for example, as composite applications). Typically, it makes sense to focus on areas where the advantages of service-based architectures and highly standardized interfaces can be leveraged to the largest extent: These are processes that span across functions, applications, and enterprise boundaries. Another driving force for service-based solutions can be the need for custom-tailored user interface 3.6.1 SOA Strategies/Lifecycle Developing SOA based platform always needs to go through certain processing phases, known as SOA lifecycle [Ziff Davis. Strategies for SOA Success, Ziff Davis Media Custom Publishing December 2005] 3.6.2 SOA Governance SOA Governance Cycle Another important feature a BPP has its built in Governance cycle that creates the collaboration with external partners and industry specific business processes that help SAP to transform its services required on business process platform as appropriate as the industry demand. The governance cycle also help SAP in making these services definition fully compatible with the Service oriented architecture. These web services defined by SAP are built on open standards which enable a BPP not only to deliver the business process contents but also present it as a platform to plan new applications and flexible business processes along with the composing, delivering, running and monitoring the new business applications developed by SAP and other external business communities, therefore the platform not only serves as a tool to build new applications but also serves as an application server to run applications on it.But what does the concept of governance infer when talking about SOA? Well,expl anations aiming at describing the features of SOA governance are many. Mehling(2008) states that SOA governance refers to activities and procedures related toexercising control over services in an SOA environment. It features everything acompany uses to ensure SOA is done in accordance with best practices, architecturalprinciples, government regulations and pertinent laws. Likewise, Woods Mattern(2006) assert that SOA governance and policies provide a management structure,processes, and policies to oversee operations and management of services. In addition,Carter (2007) states that the task of SOA governance is to assist in establishing a processfor shared services, facilitating communications, as well as enforcing standards,platforms, and policies. (Thesis : Success factors of SOA page: 33) [SOA and WbServices Thesis refer 22) Governance Implementing a solution requires the definition of enterprise policies and establishment of strong auditing and conformance mechanisms to ensure that enterprise policies are being adhered to. Governance enforces compliance with the architecture and common semantics, and it facilitates managing the enterprise-wide development and evolution of services . Governance consists of a set of policies that services and applications must conform to, a set of practices for implementing those policies, and a set of processes for ensuring that the policies are implemented correctly. An organizational structure should be in place to define and implement governance. Governance of SOA should achieve the following: Include policies regulating service definition and enhancement, including ownership, roles, criteria, review guidelines e.t.c. Specify identification of roles, responsibilities, and owners. Enforce policies that are integrated directly into the service repository where appropriate. Include guidelines, templates, checklist, and examples that make it easy to conform to governance requirements. Involve a review of service interface definitions for new services enhancements to existing services. It ensures that the service definition conforms to standards and aligns with the business and info0rmation models. This is typically done by a service review board or the unit responsible for the service. Include an architectural review of applications and services to ensure that they conform to the SOA and enterprise architecture, typically done by the architecture review board. Governance might also support processes that allow different organizations to make changes to shared services. It should not be seen primarily as a review activity but must follow a carrot-and stick approach with an emphasis on enabling developers to build conforming applications and automating governance activities and policies . The failure to manage the evolving SOA can result in financial loss in costly service redesigns, maintenance, and project delays. More damaging are the potential loss of revenue and the business liabilities.] 3. Enterprise SOA and BPP Adopting Enterprise SOA for a company require an appropriate platform to accommodate the new architecture and its services. A Business Process Platform is the prerequisite for the deployment of enterprise SOA. BPP provides an extensible repository of enterprise services definitions and a technology platform to integrate and deploy enterprise services to enhance the business processes within an enterprise SOA. The Enterprise SOA Business Case approaches As said by Gartner Research Lab that SOA is an application terminology contains the data and business logic of an application in the form of modules or services, this business logic is encapsulated in modular business components that identify a Business driven approach of the SOA. Another joint research study done by Institute of Information management at University of St Gallen in cooperation with SAP has shown the following two different SOA business case approaches from the customer viewpoint. Situation as of Today Observation: in the market: many SOA Projects start without a Business Case Focus mostly on learning the new technology / addressing specific but isolated pain point BUT: Need for proving value increases rapidly along further SOA adoption Assumption: There is a difference regarding methodology, structure and tools for SOA business cases compared to traditional business cases for IT projects One of the two SOA approaches is business driven approach IT Centric Approach: This IT-centric approach mainly focuses the SOA IT Infrastructure related business case and the IT organization itself. This approach value the IT related improvements brought in through adopting the SOA within an organization such as one of the most relevant key driver identified in this aspect is the reuse of services which focus on more improved IT efficiency through reducing software development cost and time involved. This services orientation feature of SOA IT-Centric approach significantly improves the reusability of software functionality. . In mature organizations, we found an average reuse rate of four, which leads to considerable IT consolidation and cost-saving potential. However, strict governance is absolutely vital. says Prof. Dr. Robert Winter, Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen. Business Driven Approach: The business driven approach of SOA is an enhancement of the first SOA IT-Centric approach and mainly identified as the business process platform business case, where the IT-Centric approach participate as a component in a more comprehensive way, making the business driven approach more valuable and effective on IT and business side. SOA is not an IT-Lead initiative driven by technology, it is a business driven architectural approach that helps IT organizations work with their business counterparts to realize a flexible BPP. Therefore, the business case is not only a SOA infrastructure but a BPP business case comprises of business process benefits strategic business benefits, and IT benefits [ See from where has taken and where to put seems important if you closely align your IT with the business and design services along process needs. SAPs concept of built-in business semantics in enterprise services is exactly the way to guarantee this. ] Burda Digital Systems GmbH, for example, approaches SOA from an enterprise standpoint, as an open architecture for adaptive business solutions. SOA is a powerful concept that allows us to increase our productivity dramatically, says Gerhard Thomas, CEO of Burda Digital Systems. We achieve 10% to 20% savings in operations cost and 20% to 30% shorter project durations across our IT landscape. Sometimes its even more. However, the major benefit of SOA unfolds on the business-process side. We achieve increased process efficiency of between 10% and 30% and also benefit from improved process quality due to consistent data and role-specific process design. According to Gartner, SOA is an application topology in which the business logic of the application is organized in modules (services) with clear identity, purpose and programmatic access interfaces. Services behave as black boxes: Their internal design is independent of the nature and purpose of the requestor. In SOA, data and business logic are encapsulated in modular business components with documented interfaces. This clarifies design and facilitates incremental development and future extensions. An SOA application can also be integrated with heterogeneous, external legacy and purchased applications more easily than a monolithic, non-SOA application can. (Gartner IT Glossary) As service-oriented architecture (SOA) undergoes mass adoption and establishes itself as a de facto technology standard for implementing software architectures for increased flexibility, efficiency, and insight, organizations are looking for more economic justification for their SOA projects. This study focuses on the quantifiable SOA business-value proof points that organizations are using to convey the benefits of an SOA strategy to decision makers. To enable best-practices sharing, SAP cooperated in this research with the University of St. Gallen, Institute of Information Management (IWI-HSG), interacting with SAP and non-SAP customers in industries such as financial services, telecommunications, media, and the public sector. Key findings from the study show that customers approach making the business case for SOA in two different ways. ] Chapter 4: Methodology LITERATURE REVIEW Research Papers written on enterprise SOA, Business process platform and Web services Documentation. RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND ECOSYSTEM PLATFORM: SAP WEB based research forums and communities in addition SAP provided documentation on enterprise SOA and Business Process Platform. COMPARATIVE STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTION: Distinct developments of major market vendors like Microsoft, Oracle and PeopleSoft is also considered to derive a comparative analysis and recommendation for SAP platform on better improving the business processes. ONLINE SURVEY: An online Survey to have an analysis and feedback on the research questions raised in thesis writing on a leading survey site is done, METHOD Conclusion Comparison with other platforms [ I2 Agile Business Process Platform Document: i2 Agile BPP Document i2 BPP A Platform for the Future or https://www.i2.com/supplychainleader/issue1/html/SCL1_aplatform_forthefuture.cfm ] IBM WEbShpere Business integration primer (eBood) INTRODUCTOIN The Aim of this research is to analyze and explore the enterprise Services Oriented architecture (eSOA) and highlight eSOAs impact on the business process platform with both business and technology aspect with in SAP boundaries, eSOA features and provided methodologies for further development of business processes and platform (SAP NetWeaver) would be mainly focused. Main areas to be addressed ***[(Enterprise Services Architecture)] based strategy To provide a clear explanation of the importance of STANDARDS to enterprise SOA to explore its expected flexibility and uniformity in operating the business applications on an enterprise SOA oriented BPP. To explore the BPP at all levels of its lifecycle in order to have an exact relationship and features it perseveres from enterprise SOA and enterprise services as its core ingredient of services enriched structure. To analyse different phases of SAP methodology for accelerated transformation to SOA and its impact on SOA business transformation processes. To highlight the real change, an enterprise SOA would be bringing in to specific industries as an individual business application platform and also as commonly available platform for different business natures e.g. ERP, CRM, and SCM etc. SAP Business Process Platform (NatWeaver) Overview Document: Transform Your Organization with Enterprise Service oriented Architecture SAP Solutions WEB SERVICES and SOA Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA) ESA is far more than SAPs approach to SOA and Web Services it is far more than the technologies inside SAP NetWeaver. It is far more than xApps and Web Interfaces. And, it is about far more than simply implementing mySAP ERP or other Business Suite Applications. (Cambell et al (2007) Chapter 5: Conclusion, Future Research and Recommendations The Future of BPM Modeling (Page 220-221 Mastering Book) Identified Challenge for Future MDE Research (Journal: Towards Utilising Model-Driven Engineering of composite applications for performance Analysis. Enterprise SOA and end to end Business Process Execution (Journal Page 273) ***SOA Architecture solution from SAP AG SOA Architecture Solution from Oracle (Oracle Fusion) SAP BPM Galaxy Choclate SAP Paper 2009 Future Management Business Process Management (Slide 25) Next Generating (BPM Slide 12) Business Processes excellence Springer 2009 (e-book) Chapter 5: No two companies will have same SOA impact on their adapted BPP. Some companies are just initially motivated to look at a platform by their plans to upgrade to mySAP ERP or any other Business Suite Application that introduce SAP NetWeaver in their infrastructure. Other have a stronger interest in how SOA can improve the efficiency and effectiveness within IT And there are those who find that adopting a business process platform offers the best opportunity to solve a high ROI business Problem. No matter what they get started, the organization will have a unique impact an SOA platform brings in to the organization. (Mastering BOOK s 265 No reference required just for info) The Future impact on BPPs Business Systems Integration The future impact on BPPs Architecture Design The Future Impact on ERP Application (Implementation and development) ( Methodology discussion ) A point taken from Mastering Book (page 262) ( SOA, Business process Management, Model driven architecture and user centric computing are major themes that are converging. All of them have a big impact on a Business Process Platform Conclusion: The goal is to extend that effort by building a larger vision between business and IT though a shared understanding of new ESA-Enabled capabilities in SAP business applications and NetWeaver platform. Part of your ESA adoption program will include digitally modeling these key processes and identifying the underlying services needed to support them. You can then work with SAP and its ecosystem partners to determine the nes you can acquire, and those that you need to create or exend to enable differentiation (Mastering BOOK s 284 No reference required just for info) REFERENCES: Cambell. S, Mohun. V. (2007). Mastering Enterprise SOA with SAP NetWeaver and mySAP ERP, Wiley Publishing, Inc p. xxii. Cesare, D.S. Bell, D. Iacovelli, N. Lycett, M. Merico, A. (2007).A Framework for Deriving Semantic Web Services Dept. of Information Systems and Computing, BURA, Brunel University. Maamar. Z, Benslimane. D, Narendra. C (2006), what can context does for web services? ACM communication vol. 49, no. 12 Paar, A. (2003). Semantic software engineering tools In Companion of the 18th annual ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming, systems, languages, and applications (pp. 90-91). Anaheim, CA, USA ACM Press Dan Woods, Jeffrey Word, 2004 SAP NetWeaver for Dummies Wiley Publishing, USA, Indianapolis (Indiana), ISBN-13: 978-0-7645-6883-3 K. Umapathy and S. Purao, A theoretical investigation of the emerging standards for web services, Information Systems Frontier, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 119-134, 2007.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Community service organisations cover services for a wide range of clients from homeless youth or adults, aged care and disability, unemployed people and more. Whichever type of client, legislative requirements will impact the ways employees and organisations interact with its clients. Employees will need to know legal requirements relevant to the type of service provided. All workplaces are required to follow regulations and legislations: Occupational health and safety Ã¢â¬â This protects the health, safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. OHS laws in Australia are guided by Common and Criminal laws. Ohs law require employers and employees to be responsible for their own health and safety as well as the health and safety of clients too whom staff provide services. All staff must follow instructions and training, such as manual handling and treatment of hazardous substances. They must use the supplied personal protective equipment and report hazards, incidents and injuries that occur, immediately. Privacy and confidentiality: This law affects how personal information is collected, used and shared with others. It dictates how information must be treated while being held and how it is destroyed. Only information that is relevant to a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment or care can be obtained. The act does not allow an organisation to sell or pass on information without written permission from the client. There is however a few circumstance where disclosing information toShow MoreRelatedHsbc Swot Analysis4574 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesSaudi British Bank North America: Ã¢â¬ ¢ HSBC Bank Canada Ã¢â¬ ¢ HSBC Bank USA Inc Ã¢â¬ ¢ HSBC Finance Corporation *Wide Business Range. Principal Business Groups and Divisions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commercial Banking Ã¢â¬ ¢ Global Banking and Markets (Investment Banking) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Personal Financial Services (Retail Banking and Consumer Finance) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Global Private Banking Commercial Banking: HSBC provides financial services to small, medium-sized and middle-market enterprises. The group has more than 3 million of such customers,Read MoreClient Presentation And Service Delivery10192 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pages Confirm client developmental status CHCDEV001A Reference Guide V5 Ã¢â¬Æ' Contents Introduction 4 The Changing Life 6 Stages of Human Development 7 Physical DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦....8 Psychological Development Social Development Cognitive Development Affective Development Theories that Inform Community Services Practice 10 Attachment Theory Trauma Trauma Theory Identify Relevant Support for Clients 12 Outcomes Measurement Tools 15 ABAS-II Ã¢â¬â Adaptive Behaviour Assessment SystemRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesexamples of how business and public sector organisations are managing strategic issues. The case studies which follow allow the reader to extend this linking of theory and practice further by analysing the strategic issues of speciÃ¯ ¬ c organisations in much greater depth Ã¢â¬â and often providing Ã¢â¬ËsolutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ to some of the problems or difÃ¯ ¬ culties identiÃ¯ ¬ ed in the case. There are also over 33 classic cases on the Companion Website. These are a selection of cases from recent editions of the book which remainRead MoreMarketing Discussion15807 Words Ã |Ã 64 Pagesneeds and wants. Critics, however, maintain that marketing does much more than that and creates needs and wants that did not exist before. According to these critics, marketers encourage consumers to spend more money than they should on goods and services they really do n ot need. Take a position: Marketing shapes consumer needs and wants versus marketing merely reflects the needs and wants of consumers. MY OPINION:Pro: With the vast amount of information available to marketers today and the emphasisRead MoreModern History.Hsc.2012 Essay25799 Words Ã |Ã 104 PagesGermany complied. - Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as piracy. - In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. The German Foreign minister, in the Zimmermann Telegram, told Mexico that U.S. entry was likely once unrestricted
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theMartell Home Buildersfor Social Media On Business Communication. Answer: Introduction Social media is a strategy tool used in the communication and marketing for business. In the 21st century, social media has changed the way of communication among people as well as businesses (EVANS 2010). It creates new approaches for companies in selling their brand and improving the intimate performances. For example, when Martell Home Builders, a company based in Canada, adopted the social media tools, it realized various changes in its business activities. Social media platforms include Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Pinterest and Tumblr (SHELDON 2017). Social media when used well leads to positive results and can as well cause adverse effects if misused. Every business should implement the use of social media platforms in its communication due to the various benefits it reaps for the organization. Martell Home Builders is a home builder company in Moncton, Canada. It is one of the companies which have adopted the online business through social media and has realized massive benefits from it. In the past, this organization was known to use realtors to get customers to buy their custom homes. However, today, this company has adopted the social media strategy thus it has realized massive profits as well as massive savings (FERRARA, 2013). Social media creates opportunities for the business in every post made. These are opportunities for social media users to convert to brand customers. By building a followers page in social media platforms, a business tends to get new clients who create a chance for the increase in the market for its products or services (GRAY, 2013). Opportunity is one of the most important actions born from social media. There is always a significant increase in conversion of customers in social media significantly. Communication in businesses has gone through various changes today. Technology has made the business communication to take a different direction from the past. In the past 20 years, business was done through face to face, but today, that has been replaced by virtual communication (BISEN, 2009). Many companies are adopting the use of phone calls, emails, and social media tools in their communication. So many virtual relationships in business are formed, and globally, this has been enacted. This new technology has increased more efficiency business performance. Verbal communication in business has decreased primarily due to the evolving and changing technology and social media platforms. Most companies are taking on to Twitter, Facebook and emailing in communicating to their customers and creating a brand loyalty for their products (GUFFEY, 2010). Thus marketing has become more advanced with the introduction of technology. Emailing is regarded more professional in business, and it is u sed in creating the Twitter and Facebook accounts. With emailing, information reaches a large number of clients in a very short while. These are the various ways in which Communication has changed for the last 20 years; the first substantial shift in communication is social media. Within the past 20 years, there has been an emergence of Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram among many other social media platforms. These platforms have become crucial in reaching out to the public and creating business awareness. According to MARTIN (2010), today, about 60% of people all over the world visit social media channels for updates in the current world of operations and other news. Secondly, blogging is another change in communication that has made various improvement in business. Blogging has changed the form of interactions with customers and other brands. Unlike before, where businesses depended on reporters to reach out the public, blogs have changed that notion. It has enabled more engagements with customers and public. Thirdly, measurement is another change that has been enhanced in the last 20 years. In the past, business was not able to measure, for example, how many people have read their reports or bought their articles but with the recent communication technology, one can follow up on the figures. For example in Martell Home Builders, they can know the number of people interested in their Facebook Page, by the number of individuals who have liked the page. Fourthly, this technology has enabled advanced sharing. Today in business, public relations officers can send publications and press releases to reporters through Direct Messages (DMs) in Twitter instantly unlike 20 years before, where they had to mail them directly, consuming the time taken to reach the targeted market. This action has enhanced communication sharing in a big aspect. Lastly but not least, technology has enabled affordability. Organizations can now post publications in social media at no cost unlike in the past 20 years where firms paid massive amounts to advertise in print and mass media (RADU 2014). They way business is undertaken in companies is impacted by these changes. Organizations have taken different paths in doing business since this communication changes evolved. One of the implications of this conversation changes is that it creates a new medium for making sales. In the past, sales were made mainly through stores, but with the social media platforms, organizational products can reach a wider market locally and globally when sold online (FLEISHER, 2007). Secondly, these communication changes have enabled the increase in customer satisfaction since customers can shop online and have their products delivered without going to the stores. With these changes, it allows customers an opportunity to give feedback on a companys products through the online platform as well as post their suggestions on any improvements they need in the business. This strategy enhances the relationship between the firm and its customers. The company thus can manage the connection in a better way. Thirdly, this technological communication changes has largely impacted the working methods in the organization. Such methods where employees can work from their homes as long as they have an internet connection without having to go to the physical location of the company. For example, in this case, Martell Home Builders have completely gone online in their business activities, and its workforce now works from anywhere. This change increases the convenience of employees in the organization and increases work morale (BOHLANDER, 2009). Fourthly, changes in communication lead to reduced costs in marketing. Cost reduction occur because, through social media platforms, marketing is done freely by posting publications and advertising messages to a large number of people with no cost unlike the other past methods of using print and mass media to promote the business products. This approach would incur the extensive company costs. For example, in this case, Martell Home Builders, used realtor s before to get customers who were costly but now since it adopted the social media strategy it has saved on the costs. The fifth impact of communication changes to business is that it has increased the market share for organizational products. Social media platforms are global, and marketing in this channels enhances the market of business outputs (PRIDE, 2011). This is achieved through the creation of brand awareness through social media platforms. For example, when Martell Home Builders posts the photos of their built homes on their Facebook page, they get likes from many people. Once someone likes their page, they do not leave the website but keeps getting their latest updates. This strategy helps in increasing the market for this company since through social media; it reaches a broad audience. When posting photos of products, visibility is improved, and more readers seem to take interest thus creating a wider market. The sixth impact of technological changes in communication is a production of high-quality communication. The internet contains a pool of knowledge, which helps in determining the quality of communication. For instance, one can translate a text from one language to another thus business can be done through different cultures via online without difficulty. This technology has enabled the retrieval of stored verbal communication in case clarifications are needed somewhere unlike in the past where that was not possible. Lastly, changes in communication have created accessibility globally. Unlike before, currently, people can stream any current news from any country in the world in the comfort of their homes (HEALEY, 2011). Anyone in Asia, for instance, can be able to access all the information pertaining the Martell Home Builders in Canada through the internet, blogs and their social media pages. It is also possible to communicate to them from Asia instead of traveling all the way to their offices. This communication technology has made it possible for this company to overcome competition from other real estate companies, regarding its accessibility. Despite the evolution of the internet and the technological changes that have made communication efficient, some obstacles hinder communication in businesses in the 21st century (ROHM, 2014); Numerous Channels In the 21st century, a lot of pathways for communication have evolved, and business faces the challenge of determining what channel to use to reach a certain market as well as creating the right message for each channel. The main difficulty is that of choosing the right channel for a business strategy. For example, Martell Home Builders decided to use blogging to fulfill their customers needs. This approach enhanced the creation of the blog content and in turn attracted more customers. Evaluation of Social Media Significance. Despite being an easy tool to reach the audience, some social media platforms do not deliver. For example, most Facebook users tend to ignore business promotional messages and do not even consider reading them. Depending on the type of business activities of a company, social media platform deemed to be used is crucial. Twitter and LinkedIn platforms are the best when dealing with advertising business. Business should also be able to design their messages in a way that audiences do not ignore them. Credible Audience Relationship Creating a relationship with customers is another primary challenge faced by businesses. Relationship through social media is accredited if a marketer of a company, gives feedback to the comments of every individual (SMITH 2011). However, due to the overwhelming number of comments and likes in a business post, many companies fail to respond to their audiences. This feedback is through responding to comments, liking their comments or even tweeting them back. Feedback is crucial in every business communication. Content Creation Communication in business faces challenges of creating original and appealing content. Some companies seem to copy other brands content and reusing them. However in the market, quality content should be generated, and originality should be maintained (MADEJ 2010). This material creates uniqueness in business content and attracts audiences and investors. This social media content should be done consistently as well. This is an area where many companies have failed. There needs to be witty in crafting the messages, especially those that are likely to fit the audience. Lacks Branding Personnel When branding on social media, wallpapers in Twitter, banners in Google + and covers photos in Facebook all require different designs. Some businesses need the personnel to do this, implement and create these graphics thus that limits the content of social media. Using a person who is poor in graphics to do it, may lead to the creation of the wrong business logos and brand names sending the wrong message (LEVNAJIC 2014). In diving into social media, this has been a major setback. Conclusion There are many sectors in which social media affects business, but the most crucial of all is the use of social media in the marketing industry. This area is the most important of all because it sells business motives. Social media has both positive and negative impacts on business communication as seen above. Although it has rendered some few obstacles to business communication, the various benefits outweigh the negative consequences. In this 21st century, every business should focus on adopting the social media strategy, as one of the strategies in its business. References BISEN, VP 2009, Business communication. 18th ed. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd. BOHLANDER, G. S. S., 2009. Managing Human Resource Management. 18th ed. s.l.: Cengage Learning. EVANS, L. 2010, Social media marketing: strategies for engaging in Facebook, Twitter other social media. 18th ed. Indianapolis: Ind, Que. FERRARA, M 2013, Gale business insights handbook of social media marketing .. 18th ed. Detroit: Gale/. FLEISHER, CB 2007, Business and Competitive Analysis: Effective Application of New and Classic Methods". 18th ed. s.l.: FT Press. GRAY, A 2013, Brilliant social media: how to start, refine and improve your social media business strategy.. 18th ed. s.l.:s.n. GUFFEY, ML 2010, Essential of business communication .. 18th ed. Mason, OH, South-Western: Cengage Learning. HEALEY, J 2011, Social impacts of digital media. 18th ed. Thirroul, N.S.W., Spinney Press. LEVNAJIC, Z 2014, Facing ICT challenges in the era of social media.. 18th ed. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Academic Research. MADEJ, K 2010, Interactivity, Collaboration, and Authoring in Social Media.. 18th ed. s.l.:s.n. MARTIN, G 2010, 30 days to social media success: the 30-day results guide to making the most of Twitter, blogging, LinkedIn, and Facebook. 18th ed. Franklin Lakes, NJ, Career Press. PRIDE, WF 2011, Marketing. 2012 ed. s.l.: Cengage Learning. RADU, RMH, 2014. The evolution of global Internet governance: principles and policies in the making .. 18th ed. s.l.:s.n. ROHM, A 2014, Herding cats: a strategic approach to social media marketing.. 18th ed. New York: Business Expert Press. SHELDON, P 2017. Social Media. 18th ed. [S.I.]: LEXINGTON BOOKS. SMITH, PZ. 2011, Marketing Communications: Integrating Offline and online with social media.. 8th ed. London: Kogan Page.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Edith Wharton: A brief personal history and overview of literary achievements The cultural advancement of the 1920's has many important literary figures associated with it. Names such as T.S. Elliot, Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald are some of the better-known names. Edith Wharton is one of the less known of the period, but is still a formidable writer. This paper will explore Ms. Wharton's life and history and give a brief background surrounding some of her more popular novels. Ms. Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones on January 24, 1862, in her parents' mansion and West Twenty-Third Street in New York City. Her mother, Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander, connected with wealthy Dutch landowners and merchants of the early nineteenth century, was the granddaughter of an outstanding American Revolutionary War patriot, General Ebenezer Stevens. After the war, General Stevens became a very successful East-India merchant. Edith Wharton's father, a man of considerable, private, inherited wealth, did not follow a career in business. Rather, he lived a life of leisure, punctuated by his hobbies of sea fishing, boat racing, and wildfowl shooting (activities typical of wealthy men of the day). During her first few years, Edith Wharton's family alternated between New York City in the winter and Newport, Rhode Island, in the summer. At the time, Newport was a very fashionable place where New York City families of wealth might enjoy ocean breezes and participate in a ro! und of tea and inner parties, the leaving of calling cards, and constant preparations for entertaining or being entertained. When she was four years old, her parents took her on a tour of Europe, concentrating on Italy and France. She became as familiar with Rome and Paris as most children are with their hometowns. It was here that the small, red-headed child played her favorite game. Not yet able to read, she carried around with her a large volume of Washington Irving's stories of old Spain, The Alhambra. Holding the Book carefully, often upside down, she proceeded to turn the pages and to read aloud "make up" stories as she went along. Whereas most children of her age would be told the familiar old folk and fairy tales of Anderson, Perrault, and the Brothers Grimm, she listened with great delight to tales of the "domestic dramas" of the great Greek and Roman gods of mythology. The young child rapidly learned to read, speak, and write German, French, and Italian, as a result of the efforts of governess and the extended family tours of France and Italy. Returning to America after an absence of sex years in picturesque Europe, the ten-year-old Edith viewed New York City with mixed feelings. She missed the glamour of Europe; she was distressed with the busy commercial air of much of her home city; she was delighted to join her relatives and friends on a rambling family estate at Newport. Here she continued her study of modern languages and proper manners. However, she had to return to her father's in New York, where she spent her time perusing his library and immersing herself in the likes of Roman Plutarch and the English Macaulay, the English Pepys and Evelyn and the French Madame de Sevigne; the poets, Milton, Burns and Byron, as well as Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Elizabeth Barrat Browning. With these writers as her models and inspiration, young Edith Wharton began to cover huge sheets of wrapping paper with her own prose and verse. Edith's family and the families of most of her friends were not "in business": they lived on their incomes and investments, living leisurely lives of dining out or dinner going with much emphasis on good cooking, and sparkling conversation. Once in a while, they attended the theatre; the opera, seldom. When she was seventeen, Edith's parents decided the time had arrived for her "coming out." The series of social activities that indicated to the world that she was adult enough to be invited to social entertainment without her parents as chaperones. Soon, she joined her father and mother to another trip to Europe - this time for her father's health. He died in France, when Edith was nineteen years old, and the grief-stricken mother and daughter returned to New York City.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
3 Easy Ways to Set Ice on Fire Have you ever wondered whether you could set ice on fire? These are instructions for how to make ice appear to burn and also instructions so that you can actually set it on fire. Making Ice Appear to Be on Fire Most of the photos you might see of burning ice were probably made using Photoshop, but you can get the appearance of burning ice very easily without resorting to image processing tricks. Get some glass cubes (craft stores carry them), set them on a surface that can withstand fire (metal pan, Pyrex, stoneware), pour something flammable over the ice, and set it alight. You can use 151 rum (ethanol), rubbing alcohol (try for 90% isopropyl alcohol, not the 70% alcohol stuff), or methanol (HeetÃ¢â ¢ fuel treatment from the automotive section of a store). These easy-to-obtain fuels burn cleanly, so they wont set off your smoke alarm (I know... I tried). If you want colored flames, you can add any of the usual flame colorants to the ethanol or rubbing alcohol. If you use methanol, try adding a little boric acid for a brilliant green flame. Use caution with methanol, since it burns very hot. One little display tip: You can give glass cubes the imperfect, crackled appearance of water ice b y setting one on fire and then tossing it (with tongs) into water after the fire goes out. The glass may shatter, but if you have the temperature just right youll just create internal fractures that look very pretty in photographs. Flaming Ice I basically told you how to set ice on fire when I explained how to make a flaming B-52 drink. High-proof ethanol (like 151 rum) or 90% isopropyl alcohol will float on the surface of water and mix with it so that as long as there is fuel, your ice will appear to burn. As the ice melts, it will extinguish the flame (methanol is highly toxic too). You can use ethanol on ice used for human consumption (or flaming ice cream drinks). Rubbing alcohol (isopropyl) and methanol are toxic and should only be used for decorative purposes. Really Burning the Ice You may be thinking it is impossible to burn ice. Strictly speaking, that is not true. You can burn ice, just not water ice. If you make ice cubes from any of the alcohols I have listed, you can burn them. For pure alcohol ice cubes, youll need a way to freeze the liquid down to about -100Ã °C, give or take a few degrees depending on the specific alcohol. You dont need to get quite that cold for 75% alcohol/25% water ice, which will burn if you spritz it with a little liquid alcohol to get flammable vapor over the ice. You may be able to freeze the 75% solution over dry ice. Flaming Ice Safety Just remember two things: (1) If you want to ingest the flaming ice, only use food-grade ethanol, not some other fuel. (2) Methanol burns very, very hot! You can get away with using almost any surface if you use ethanol or isopropanol. You can even touch the flame briefly. However, the risk of getting burned or of your fire getting out of control are much higher using methanol because it produces so much heat. Is It Possible to Burn Water? The reason water is used to extinguish flames is because it has such a high heat capacity. Technically, you cant burn water because combustion is an oxidation process. In a sense, water is the product of the combustion of hydrogen. However, if you pass a sufficiently strong electrical current through water, it decomposes into its elements. The hydrogen gas is flammable, while the oxygen gas supports its combustion. If you have a flame or ignition source at the point of electrolysis, water will appear to burn. So, it follows you could make real water ice appear to burn. For this to occur, the ice would need to be floating in some liquid water. Electrolysis of the water to produce hydrogen and oxygen would yield flammable gas above the ice. Igniting the gas would make the ice appear to burn. Note this is a theoretical method of burning ice, not one youd want to try in a school science lab! Its much safer to burn hydrogen from electrolysis in bubbles or balloons than in the open. Disclaimer: Please be advised that the content provided by our website is for EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. Fireworks and the chemicals contained within them are dangerous and should always be handled with care and used with common sense. By using this website you acknowledge that ThoughtCo., its parent About, Inc. (a/k/a Dotdash), and IAC/InterActive Corp. shall have no liability for any damages, injuries, or other legal matters caused by your use of fireworks or the knowledge or application of the information on this website. The providers of this content specifically do not condone using fireworks for disruptive, unsafe, illegal, or destructive purposes. You are responsible for following all applicable laws before using or applying the information provided on this website.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Business Plan - Essay Example The business analysis section of the business plan gives emphasis on the details of the restaurant that is going to be set up in London. It highlights the products and services that are to be served and offered to the customers in London. Hence, an overall blueprint of the business is provided in this section. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Cross Delite will be a multi-cuisine restaurant in London, whose main aim is to provide delicious and healthy foods to the customers. The restaurant will be established near KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Cross railway station. The reason for choosing such a position is that it is the most populous and attractive place in London, where thousands of passengers come to the city and leave the city every day. The passenger includes students, office goers, tourists and businessmen. A multi-cuisine restaurant in such a place will not only attract customers but also increase the number of customers daily. The restaurant will have a new theme, which is not tried by any other restaurant in London. The customers, who will be visiting the restaurant, will get the feeling that they are inside a sea. The watery background will be provided in order to present a calm and comfortable climate for the customers while consuming their food. It not only creates a clear ambience but it will also give a feeling of having food under water. The water will have several fishes, not large one, but small and familiar ones along with water plants and insects. If the business plan is recognized to be feasible for developing the restaurant business, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Cross Delite will be inaugurated in January 2016. Less than a year time will be required to build the structure of the restaurant and kitchen. The most important part of the restaurant will be its kitchen; it is an open-kitchen, which will allow the customers to see how the dishes are prepared and whether the chefs are maintaining a